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Comparison Charts for CSE, IEEE, and AMA References

January 27, 2021 by ProofreadingPal in Professional Writing

See the chart for APA, MLA, and CMS here.

In-Text Citations

 CSE (Council of Science Editors) Name-YearCSE Citation-Name and Citation-SequenceIEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)AMA (American Medical Association)
What type of in-text citation to use?Use parenthetical author-date citations.   Separate multiple citations in a sentence with semicolons (see second example below).Use superscript numbers inside punctuation.   Numbers correspond to numbered reference list arranged alphabetically (citation-name) or arranged in order of appearance in the text (citation-sequence); Separate multiple citations in a sentence with commas. If referring to several sources listed sequentially in the reference list, list them as a range as shown in the second example below.Use numbers in square brackets.   Numbers correspond to a reference list arranged in order of appearance in the text. If referring to several sources listed sequentially in the reference list, list them as a range as shown in the second example below.Use superscript note numbers outside punctuation.   Numbers correspond to a reference list arranged in order of appearance in the text
ExamplesOne author: (Smith 2019)Two authors: (Jones and Chung 2010; Smith 2019)Three or more authors: (Mehti et al. 2015)…according to research1.…as shown in several studies1-3, 7.… according to research [1].… as shown in several studies[1], [3-5].…according to research.1…as shown in several studies.1, 3-7
How to handle direct quotes? Are page numbers required?Authors generally paraphrase rather than quoting, and CSE does not describe how to handle page numbers. Journals may offer guidance on how to include page numbers, as shown below.CSE does not offer guidance on including page numbers.Include the page number in the brackets as shown below.Page numbers are not required but may be included as shown below.
Examples with page numbers(Smith 2019, 101)(Smith 2019: 101)Smith (2019: 101) describes “[quote].”       n/a[1, p. 101][1, pp. 100-101][1 para. 2][1]-[3], [7]…according to research.1(pp71-72)…as shown in several studies.1-3, 7(p101)

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End-of-Text References

For examples of reference listings beyond the types included below, see the individual websites linked to the column heads in the table.

 CSE Name-Year1CSE Citation-Name and Citation-Sequence1IEEE3AMA4
BooksAllen C, Prior P, Hayward AC. 2005. Bacterial wilt: the disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. St. Paul (MN): APS Press 508 p.1 Allen C, Prior P, Hayward AC. Bacterial wilt: the disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. St. Paul (MN): APS Press; 2005. 508 p[1] B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.   Note: Include the country of publication if not the United States.1. Shepard TH. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 7th ed. Johns Hopkins University Press; 1992.
Chapters from edited volumesAllen, C. 2007. Bacteria, bioterrorism, and the geranium ladies of Guatemala. In: Cabezas AL, Reese E, Waller M, editors. Wages of empire: neoliberal policies, repression, and women’s poverty. Boulder (CO): Paradigm Press. p. 169-177.2 Allen, C. Bacteria, bioterrorism, and the geranium ladies of Guatemala. In: Cabezas AL, Reese E, Waller M, editors. Wages of empire: neoliberal policies, repression, and women’s poverty. Boulder (CO): Paradigm Press; 2007. p. 169-177.[2] L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.2. Degner LF, McWilliams ME. Challenges in conducting cross-national nursing research. In: Fitzpatrick JJ, Stevenson JS, Polis NS, eds. Nursing Research and its Utilization: International State of the Science. Springer; 1994:211-215  
Journal articles2Flores-Cruz Z, Allen C. 2011. Necessity of OxyR for the hydrogen peroxide stress response and full virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 77(18):6426-6432.3 Flores-Cruz Z, Allen C. Necessity of OxyR for the hydrogen peroxide stress response and full virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77(18):6426-6432.  [3] R. E. Kalman, “New results in linear filtering and prediction theory,” J. Basic Eng., ser. D, vol. 83, pp. 95-108, Mar. 1961.3. Raux H, Coulon P, Lafay F, et al. Monoclonal antibodies which recognize the acidic configuration of the rabies glycoprotein at the surface of the virion can be neutralizing. Virology. 1995;210(2):400-408.
Internet sourcesWilliamson RC. 2004. Deciduous tree galls [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/pddc/files/Fact_Sheets/FC_PDF/Deciduous_Tree_Galls.pdf4 Williamson RC. Deciduous tree galls [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; 2004 Apr 25 [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/pddc/files/Fact_Sheets/FC_PDF/Deciduous_Tree_Galls.pdf[4] S. L. Talleen. (1996, Aug.). The IntraNet Architecture: Managing information in the new paradigm. Amdahl Corp, CA. [Online]. Available: http://www.amdahl.com/doc/products/bsg/intra/infra/html4. King MW. Carbohydrate Nomenclature. The Medical Biochemistry Page. Updated April 2, 2020. Accessed June 3, 2020. http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org.

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